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dimanche 31 décembre 2017

BYE BYE 2017!

Par Marie-Hélène Beaudoin
Avocate
Delegatus services juridiques inc.

C’est devenu une tradition. Le 31 décembre, sur le Blogue du CRL, on ne gigue pas. On ne mange pas d’atocas. Nous, juristes puristes, célébrons la fin d’année en lisant de la jurisprudence. Beaucoup de jurisprudence. Beaucoup, beaucoup de jurisprudence. Et nous vous résumons partiellement l’état de la connaissance d’office au courant de l’année qui a précédé. C’est notre manière à nous de dire bye bye à 2017. De véritables bêtes de party, quoi.

Nous nous excusons à l’avance de la longueur intolérable du présent billet, que vous êtes invités à digérer lentement pendant la fin du congé des Fêtes, comme les restants de tourtière, de dinde et de ragoût de pattes.

Alors, en 2017, quels étaient les faits qui étaient raisonnablement incontestables et tellement notoires qu’ils étaient de connaissance judiciaire, sans qu’il ne soit nécessaire d’administrer une preuve? Au contraire, quels étaient ceux qui nécessitaient une preuve?

Nous aurions pu vous rapporter une décision par mois, ou même plus, rappelant à quel point il est de connaissance notoire que les ressources judiciaires sont limitées. Nous nous permettons d’éviter presque complètement cette question lourde. Nous ne citerons en effet qu’une seule décision à ce sujet, faisant quelque peu contrepoids à l’arrêt Jordan : une autorité éminemment persuasive émanant du Swaziland.

Car… Bon… c’est les vacances. Alors nous avons plutôt envie de parler de technologie. Et de sujets faisant écho à l’actualité présentant une importance capitale pour l’avancement de l’humanité (lancement de la deuxième saison de « The Crown » sur Netflix, lancement du film « The Disaster Artist » avec les frères Franco, annonce de la légalisation de la marijuana, etc.). Et pourquoi pas de sujets ayant soulevé de véritables polémiques en 2017, tel que le ramonage, le remorquage ou le lutinage?

Trêve d’absurdité… Bonne lecture!



Janvier
Jean-Paul c. Uber Technologies Inc., 2017 QCCS 164 :
« [45] Le Tribunal a connaissance d’office du principe de « l'offre et la demande ».

R v Dennington, 2017 ABPC 4 (Alberta) :
« […] I will take judicial notice that the lawful way to cross a busy street, especially in a downtown area, is at a crosswalk. […] »

Nehmé c. Administrateur général (ministère des Travaux publics et des Services gouvernementaux), 2017 CRTEFP 14 :
« [163] […] je crois que tout le monde sait que les pianistes de concert joueront, pendant des heures, parfois très rapidement, deux lignes distinctes d’une série de notes qui peuvent être altérées par des dièses et des bémols, sans jamais regarder une partition. »

Février
Lapshinoff v Allen, 2017 ONSC 1023 (Ontario) :
« [29] […] I can take judicial notice of the fact that these children are 14 and 15 years of age, and it is difficult to force children of this age to do anything at all if they refuse to do so. […] »

R. c. Lachance, 2017 QCCM 99 :
« [59] Il est de connaissance judiciaire que dans les petites municipalités le remorqueur n’est pas ouvert et lorsqu’un appel est effectué, il doit se rendre chercher son camion avant de se diriger à l’endroit du remorquage. […] »

Bajwa v. Canada (Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship), 2017 FC 202 :
« [46]  […] Applicants’ counsel believes that it is sufficient to offer a personal view that:
It is believed that the Officer, who appears to be a Francophone from Quebec with somewhat poor English skills, may have been motivated by racist tendencies. It is notorious that CIC and its associated tribunals, have had a longstanding problem with racism on the part of some of its Francophone employees, who have sometimes tended to exhibit race-based hostility against non-white Applicants.

[47] We are not told who believes this and no evidence is provided to support it. It is simply a comment by Applicants’ counsel that the Court is supposed to take judicial notice of as though it is so notorious that no one could think otherwise. This is not only poor and ineffective advocacy, it is highly offensive and unbecoming of an officer of this Court and a member of the bar. […]

[48] There is nothing in the Decisions or the record under review to support any of this. »

Mars
Génie Lutin inc. c. Leroux (Éditions Bambou), 2017 QCCQ 2685 :
« [30] Il y a en effet plus de 100 ans que des auteurs font référence à des lutins qui viennent espionner les maisons avant Noël, qu’il est fait référence à de la poudre magique, qu’il est fait référence à la possibilité d’attraper des lutins et qu’il s’agit d’être[s] enjoués et gourmands. »

Avril
Romano c. Directeur des poursuites criminelles et pénales, 2017 QCCQ 4589 :
« [29] [...] les juges de la chambre criminelle et pénale de la Cour du Québec savent ce qui se passe dans leur Cour [...] »

Piniotis v Commissioner of Police, New South Wales Police Force, [2017] NSWCATOD 65 (Australie) :
« [13] […] And while it is presumably possible to smoke marijuana from a glass pipe, as a matter of common knowledge that is not the usual way of ingesting cannabis. […] »

R. c. Audet, 2017 QCCM 73 :
« [296] S’il ne faut pas jeter le bébé avec l’eau du bain, on doit prendre garde non plus de ne pas continuer à l’y laisser mijoter.

[302] L’esprit humain, dit-on, est comme le parapluie ; il fonctionne mieux lorsqu’il est ouvert. »

R. c. Desroches, 2017 QCCQ 3012 :
« [20] […] Quoiqu’il m’apparaisse que la connaissance judiciaire n’aille pas jusque-là, je demeure très sceptique sur le fait que le téléphone de l’accusé ne conserve pas 6 mois de vieux messages textes envoyés. »

Benmusa (No 2), Re [2017] EWHC 785 (Fam) (Angleterre) :

[3] […] the applicant's statement […] : “[…] I am the heir to the throne of England. This is why so much trouble has been taken to cover up my identity. […]”. In charity to the applicant I quote no more.

[4] The application is self-evidently complete nonsense. It is a matter of public record, of which I can take judicial notice, that the father of her late Royal Highness Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon, was his late Majesty King George VI, who was born on 14 December 1895, and that her mother was her late Majesty Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother, who was born on 4 August 1900. They married on 26 April 1923. Quite obviously a woman born in 1904 could not have been, as the applicant asserts, her mother's elder sister if, as she also asserts, her mother was HRH Princess Margaret. I have no hesitation in concluding that I should strike out the applicant's claim, as I do. It is a farrago of delusional nonsense. »

Mai
Elgressy c. R., 2017 QCCS 1886 :
« [43] […] the trial judge could not take judicial notice of the fact that potholes have usually been repaired by the end of August. […] »

Chante v Fantastic Pets Pty Ltd (Civil Claims), [2017] VCAT 708 (Australie) :
« [26] […] the Applicant should have left the dog inside on New Year’s Eve, rather than leaving it in the yard, given that it is commonplace for fireworks to be a feature of New Year’s Eve and it being common knowledge that fireworks terrify dogs. »

Saraffian c. Syndicat de la copropriété Villa Veritas phase 1, 2017 QCCS 2230 :
« [191] […] Almost everything she says is either deceiving, misleading, manipulative or simply false. Some parts of her testimony are outright preposterous in view of undisputable evidence. Most of her allegations do not even rise to the level of alternate facts[22].

[22] Expression attributed to Kelly-Ann Conway, a high-level aide to President Donald J. Trump. »

GB v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, [2017] UKAITUR PA054792016 (Angleterre) :
« [17] We take judicial notice of the fact that Facebook is not a communication tool designed to require an understanding of complex IT principles […] »

Protection de la jeunesse — 175060, 2017 QCCQ 12352 :
« [14] Il est très surprenant de constater qu’au mois de décembre 2016, dès la sortie de l’hôpital du bébé, la mère l’amène voir la parade du Père Noël au froid et à l’extérieur. Vu l’âge de l’enfant, environ deux mois, cette activité ne répondait absolument à aucun besoin pour lui […] »

Juin
R. v. J.A.C., 2017 ONCJ 580 (Ontario) :
« [1] Hollywood’s depiction of teenage relationships is an idealized one, with perfectly scripted dialogue where everyone always says the right thing, the soundtrack is current and catchy, and the endings are always happy.  Unfortunately, real life is not like Hollywood.  Miscommunication and misunderstanding can lead to heartache and things do not always end well. […] »

Saffioti v Kiama Municipal Council, [2017] NSWLEC 65 (Australie) :
« [86] Understanding the essential usage of a dwelling is assisted by a simple reflection on common domiciliary activities – activities which can be accepted as being common sense expectations within the scope of judicial knowledge. So with a dwelling, the use is readily comprised of activities involving people going about their normal domestic living: eating, sleeping, recreating, resting, playing, studying, gardening, keeping pets and so on. […] »

Farris v Development Consent Authority, [2017] NTSC 44 (Australie) :
« It was submitted, and I accept as a matter of common knowledge, that helicopter use in association with residential premises is very rare, and different in character and impact from ordinary residential uses. Indeed, the question whether a helicopter is an ordinary residential use need only be asked, to be denied. I have the misfortune to disagree, with respect, with Waddell J’s conclusion that there is no difference in principle between helicopters and motor vehicles. […] »

Séquestre de Société en commandite Aires de service Québec et Ernst & Young inc., 2017 QCCS 2460 :
« [79] […] il est de connaissance judiciaire que des entreprises se dotent de contentieux composés d’avocats et de notaires afin de diminuer leurs coûts d’opération. […] »
Briard c. Nguyen, 2017 QCCQ 7393 :
« [23] […] il n’est pas nécessaire d’être expert en la matière pour savoir que du ruban de plastique ne doit pas être utilisé pour fixer de la tuyauterie de fournaise. »

T.D.(1) v. T.D.(2), 2017 BCPC 201 (Colombie-Britannique) :
« [36] […] He also stated that the Grandmother provides them with gifts on the visits, which has led to them expecting gifts and treats for doing anything when at home.  However, the gifts the Grandmother provides on visits are little more than birthday gifts on their birthdays, knick knacks, potato chips, drawings and a fidget spinner.  These are hardly the kinds of gifts that should create any entitlement and are what one would normally receive from a grandparent. »

Juillet
AE v. TE, 2017 ABQB 449 (Alberta) :
« [291] I do not take judicial notice that Born Again Christians are a population segment with a high frequency of body art. I do caution myself, though, against judging the conduct of persons younger than myself by the standards of earlier generations. The fact is that body art is common now and may reflect religious motifs as well as any others. [...] »

Août
R. c. Nutaraluk, 2017 QCCQ 9568 :
« [75] The Court takes judicial notice of the meaning of a placenta. A placenta is, according to the Oxford dictionary, a flattened circular organ in the uterus of pregnant eutherian mammals, nourishing and maintaining the foetus through the umbilical cord. »

Septembre
Balbin c Canada (Citoyenneté et Immigration), 2017 CanLII 77311 (CA CISR) :
« [16] […] Depuis l’époque de Shakespeare au moins, les avocats sont mis en cause, tournés en dérision et font l’objet de plaisanteries. […] »

Leblanc et Société de transport de Montréal (gestion des ressources financières et matérielles), 2017 QCTAT 4097 :
« [23] [...] […] il est notoire qu’il est recommandé de faire ramoner une cheminée, à tout le moins une fois par année, lorsqu’une installation de chauffage au bois est le moindrement utilisée.​ »

Panagoulias v. The East Metropolitan Service [No 4], [2017] WADC 118 (Australie) :
« [376] […] It is a matter of  common knowledge  that antisocial behaviour and drug and alcohol abuse can create a significant part of the case load that burdens emergency departments, and that can particularly be the case in the early morning hours of Friday and Saturday. […] »

R. v. Hussey, 2017 NSPC 59 (Nouvelle-Écosse) :
« [15] The day may be fast approaching when the smell of fresh cannabis is widely known to the public and, by extension, familiar to triers of fact.  The smell of burnt marijuana is familiar to many people now, given its widespread use, its pungency, and its tendency to disperse. »

Toth v. City of Niagara Falls, 2017 ONSC 5670 (Ontario) :
« [21] Generally speaking, all documentation are relevant to a pleading is producible by the party in whose possession they are.  […] because of the duration of this litigation, “Facebook” disclosure only came into vogue four or five years ago.  […]  In this day and age, given the ease of taking such pictures with your iPhone and the frequent tendency by some to take “selfies”, this form of potential disclosure presents a potential treasure trove of real evidence as to what a party is capable of doing, notwithstanding their injuries. […]
[23] There is absolutely no reference in the affidavit of documents produced by the plaintiff of the existence of these photographs.  Surely counsel for the plaintiff, realizing the age of her client and the overwhelming use of iPhones to capture even the most insignificant of moments, should have averted her mind to the existence of such documentation in a public forum. »

GS v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, [2017] UKAITUR AA071102015 (Angleterre) :
« [109]  […] The background evidence supports the First-tier Tribunal's assessment that the Taliban are well organised and well known for effective intimidation. […] what is not disputed about the Taliban i.e. it is a ruthless organisation that has carried out numerous assassinations and bombings. »

Octobre
R. c. Pilon, 2017 QCCQ 11439 :
« [86] Aujourd’hui, il est bien connu que la vaste majorité des personnes arrêtées possèdent un téléphone cellulaire [...] »

R. v Taniskishayinew, 2017 BCSC 1944 (Colombie-Britannique) :
« [64] Pop culture unfortunately is filled with images of people being violently stabbed and yet surviving. If a person grows up immersed in violent pop culture, or around actual violence, has a limited understanding of anatomy and limited education or experience, and that person’s inhibitions and judgment are impaired by alcohol, it is difficult to conclude that such a person would know that a single knife wound would likely kill a person.

Chief Inspector of Education, Children's Services And Skills v The Interim Executive Board of Al-Hijrah School (Rev 2), [2017] EWCA Civ 1426 (Angleterre) :
« [103] The Judge was right […] to take judicial notice of the fact that women have been, and still are, the group with minority power in society. […]
[145] […] In my judgment, once the principle is accepted, as it was by the Judge (and the majority in this court), that, as a generality, men exercise more influence and power in society than women, and that persistent gender inequalities remain in the employment market, evidence is not required to establish that an educational system, which promotes segregation in a situation where girls are not allowed to mix with boys or to be educated alongside them, notwithstanding they are studying the same curriculum and spending their days on the same single school site, is bound to endorse traditional gender stereotypes that preserve male power, influence and economic dominance. And the impact of that is inevitably greater on women than on men. One does not need to have been educated at a women's college at a co-educational university, at a time when women were still prohibited from being members of all-male colleges, to take judicial notice of the career opportunities which women are even today denied, simply because they are prevented from participating in hierarchical male networking groups, whether in the social, educational or employment environment. »

Novembre
Fournier c. R., 2017 QCCS 5361 :
« [48] […] il n’est pas essentiel de recourir à [de la preuve d’expert] pour trancher si les manifestations alléguées comme des symptômes de conduite avec les capacités affaiblies sont incompatibles avec des malaises gastriques. »

Wiseau Studio et al. v. Richard Harper, 2017 ONSC 6535 (Ontario) :
« [24] It is precisely because The Room is so bad that it has acquired cult status.  People come not to admire but to mock.  They dress up in character costumes, they mimic lines from the script, and they throw objects at the screen to highlight its bizarre character.  
[26] While Mr. Wiseau might not have been aware of every single comment ever made about The Room, he certainly had to be aware of the reasons for which the film has acquired cult status.  Indeed, he was specifically interviewed about this by the BBC […], in an article called “The Room: Why So Many People Love ‘The Worst Film Ever Made,’” […] »
St. John's (City) v. Barry, 2017 CanLII 74668 (NL SCTD)

St. John's (City) v. Barry, 2017 CanLII 74668 (NL SCTD) (Terre-Neuve et Labrador) :
« [30] […] in this age of electronic payment, I take judicial notice of the fact that many individuals do not carry coins. »

Chen v Premier Motors Service Pty Ltd t/as Premier Illawarra, [2017] NSWCATAD 342 (Australie) :
« [46] […] We take judicial notice of the fact that a person seeing an email from “Bill Sherman” would not assume that that person was Chinese. […] »

Swaziland Revenue Authority v Mkhaliphi (43/2017), [2017] SZSC 35 (Swaziland) :
« [29] […] While litigation has to be expeditiously conducted, with respect I disagree with the Learned Judge’s conclusion that a significant period of time had passed when the matter was heard by the High Court.  The matter had commenced in 2014 and by 2016 it was already before the High Court for hearing.  While this in itself is not a cause for a celebration, many matters drag much longer than this period.  With respect, and additional concerns with the Learned Judge’s approach is that it does not take judicial notice of how slow our wheels of justice grind. Therefore, to favour the Respondent herein with an approach that her matter had to be treated specially because of the years that had passed would create an unfortunate precedent in our jurisdiction which is not informed by the reality on the ground as it were. »

Décembre
R. c. Dionne, 2017 QCCM 241 :
« [89] […] il est de connaissance judiciaire que l’utilisation par les policiers de véhicules VUS n’est pas exceptionnelle. »

Odedra v. Canada (Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness), 2017 FC 1134 :
« [17] The Court can and should take judicial notice of the fact that most adopted children, particularly if adopted when young, would not see a distinction between being related biologically or adoptively - “Mother is mother – Father is father”. »

N.C. v N.C., 2017 BCSC 2311 (Colombie-Britannique) :
« [61] […] I take judicial notice of there being a growing concern, if not a consensus, amongst pediatricians that children should not be using electronic devices such as tablets and smartphones at or prior to bedtime. The devices overstimulate, and have the capacity to interfere in proper sleep regulation. […] »

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